The scientific revolution and the experimental method
Science and its modern interpretations originate in the countless changes and innovations that over 1600 involved all areas of knowledge. During this period were redefined concepts, considered as essential as that of science and nature, produced a complex change that took the name of “scientific revolution”. The main change in this period is related essentially to the kinds of questions related to the concepts listed above. Previously we wondered why were these phenomena, While during the 1600 the mindset changed and the question became “What ’ is the cause of the phenomenon”?
The conception of nature which took place in the 17th century is defined mechanism, as for the men of science ’ time nature was like a huge and majestic ’ car set in motion by a divine Creator, whose movements and operation are determined by certain rules of operation.
In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543), a Polish astronomer in his work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium proposed explanation heliocentric theory Dell ’ universe, that the Sun is at the center of the ’ universe, While the other planets (Earth including) move around it. This vision was in stark contrast to the dominant scientific beliefs until then and proposed a total reversal of ’ order of the cosmos.
Among those with important contributions (comments, theories,discoveries,..) distinguished themselves as protagonists of the scientific revolution are Johannes Kepler (1571-1630).
Kepler was part of the ideological movement of Copernicus, in fact uttered three laws on the motion of the planets and proved that their orbits are elliptical trainers (were previously considered circulars).
Finally, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), a pisano led a decisive contribution to the creation of new science physics and Cosmology. Galilei was able to build, based on some info about the constructions of a particular subject in the Netherlands, building your first telescope, the telescope, He pointed to the sky. L ’ use of this precious object allowed Galileo Galilei to verify experimentally the Copernican thesis. He discovered Jupiter's moons and proved so l ’ existence of another system, similar to the earth-moon system. The phases of Venus led scientists to conclude that all the planets,without proper light, had to derive from the Sun, hovering.
This discovery cost Galilei imprisonment and persecution by the Sant ’ Office; from events related to the clashes with the Tribunal of Inquisition ’ emerged a strong separation between science and faith. Thanks to ’ use of experimental method, i.e. dell ’ routine use of ’ mathematical hypothesis, Dell ’ dell ’ experiment and observation Galilei tested the fundamental moments of experimental method.