L ’ architecture in prehistory

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L ’ architecture in prehistory

L'architettura nella Preistoria
Megalithic complex of Stonehenge, dating from the period between the 3100 and the 1500 l.., composed of tall stones 4 meters and heavy 50 tons. According to many scholars the complex served as an astronomical observatory.

The earliest examples of stone architecture built by ’ man date back to’Neolithic Age.

Such architectures consisted of huge stones stuck in the ground in order to compose certain structures and or alignments in the territory. Due to their large size are most commonly called megalithic architecture.

In the Neolithic age, It should be remembered, l ’ man had left the natural shelters and nomadism in permanent settlements built predominantly with wood or other perishable materials with time.

However there also were received construction, addressed all ’ time for collective use, made in stone. Such buildings were, most likely a ritual and sacred function or that they served as burial sites.

Some buildings were linked to ’ observation of the sky and its phenomena: the movement of the stars allowed to adjust agricultural work, they were also worshipped.

The major megalithic architecture can be divided into three types:

  • cromlech: dolmen sequence arranged in a circle.

    L'architettura nella Preistoria

  • dolmen: consisting of 3 main plates: two vertical and one horizontal serving as top panel. Dolmens were usually places of collective tombs.

    L'architettura nella Preistoria

  • menhir: vertical stones embedded in the soil which lined sacred areas or burial sites.

    L'architettura nella Preistoria

Among the three types of primitive architecture the dolmen is the oldest building system, also called trilithon, just as composed of three elements in stone (two piers and l lintel ’).

An interesting curiosity is the mechanism through which the monoliths were driven into the ground:

1. To transport the monoliths were used sledges made from ’ tree trunks.

L'architettura nella Preistoria

2. Large holes were dug in the chosen place within which were slipped the boulders that maintained a certain stability thanks to ’ large depth of hole.

L'architettura nella Preistoria

3. To raise the cover plate on top of the piers were used of embankments filled up all ’ the desired height.

L'architettura nella Preistoria

4. The slab was taken over the embankment and slid about piers.

L'architettura nella Preistoria

5. The dolmen was finally freed from the embankment that was served to lift the horizontal slab.

L'architettura nella Preistoria

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