Summary and main events of the French Revolution

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Summary and main events of the French Revolution

 

Riassunto e eventi principali della rivoluzione francese

Famous painting on canvas by Eugene Delacroix, one of the greatest French romantic painters. The subject of ’ work is inspired by the popular revolt which took place in Paris in July 1830. Currently is housed at the Louvre Museum in Paris.

The France after the war of 7 He was afflicted with a malaise and a general weakness, In addition it was a strong discontent for the waste and the luxury of the upper classes and in particular of the Court (widespread discontent in both underclass that ceti borghesi, whose growth was blocked by the ancient aristocratic privileges).

The national debt was now irreversible and the measures taken previously, as the currency depreciation and the forced loan proved insufficient.

The third was maintained almost entirely the company's tax burden and was obliged to support the Church,to which bore periodically certain sums of money, the so-called “tithes”. Clergy and aristocracy refused instead of supporting the weight of taxes and opposed to participate in public spending.

Leveraging institutional prerogatives parliamentarians of Paris demanded the convocation of the States General (a meeting where they gathered the representatives of different social orders) they were to be called into play for ’ introduction to each new tax, However it wasn't so from 1614.

Louis XVI, the real King of that historical period, He disbanded the parliaments and recorded the laws to a Nominating Committee directed. The members then drew defenders and advocates of legality and gained the support of middle-class and lower classes.

In the summer of ’ 1788 After several incidents of various kinds Louis XVI gave in and stared at the estates-General for spring 1789, However showed up a procedural problem. Until that time the different social orders voted separately, and the final decision was taken by the majority (therefore always from clergy and nobility).

Inspired by the party of Patriots were many Cahier de doleances, the texts of a fuss that the subjects they wrote about King's invitation to express the main reasons of discontent of the people and of the possible solutions to be adopted. Louis XVI decided then to give the third estate representatives almost equal to that of other social orders.

The 5 may 1789 the deputies gathered in the Palace of Versailles, but after a few weeks of stalling the representatives of the third estate, under the guidance of H. Gregoire refused to validate the election results until all members had not met in a joint session.

The 17 June the first fundamental act for the French Revolution: members of Parliament are proclaimed National Assembly with stated aim to give a Constitution to France. The King barred then the salon where they used to get together but they still gathered in an old room dedicated to the game of real tennis, where shook the so-called “Tennis Court oath”. The 23 June the King ordered the acquittal of ’ Assembly, However, the first and the second was joined in third and shortly after thousands of Parisians invaded the courtyard of Versailles, Louis for fear of repercussions or a riot ordered all members streamed into a single assembly ’. The 9 April l ’ National Constituent Assembly declared itself in all respects.

In 1788-89 There was an acute shortages of food and the consequent rise in the price of agricultural products which led to revolts and a wave of collective panic with numerous assaults on castles. This period is defined as the “Great Fear”.

In Paris there were numerous lootings and riots for bread and other food products,the King dismissed a Minister popular with the citizens, Necker, and put on alert troops resulting in the strengthening of the fear of a coup.

The 14 July a crowd of citizens assaulted l ’ Hotel des Invalides and seized about 30000 muskets, later he went to the Bastille (the prison-fortress with supplies of gunpowder and ’ symbol of absolutism).

The Commander of fortress garrison at the sight of the rioters ordered to fire on the crowd, However the crowd managed to overpower them, to conquer the fortress, to start to burn and demolish it. The King decided to withdraw troops and to recall Necker. In all cities municipal authorities were overturned and replaced with new functional bodies also had local armed groups called “National Guards” that guaranteed l ’ order and defended l ’ Assembly.

The 4 August 1789 l ’ abolition of feudal rights and the Suppression of the venality of offices opened the way to Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen approved on 26 August (However, the King refused to sign it).

About two thousand Parisian women gathered in front of the Hotel de Ville ’ asking for bread and looking for weapons but the guards told them to go all ’ constituent Assembly, so they marched to Versailles and there were many armed men. The King decided to sign the Declaration and was forced to take refuge in the Tuileries.

Were then established new courts, provincial parliaments and ’ administration abolished was entrusted to two Councils whose representatives were elected by the people.

The 21 June 1791 There was the attempted escape of the King and Royal family in Austria which however were arrested not far from the border and brought back to Paris. The 17 July there was a manifestation of the sans culotte in ’ Arena Champ de Mars, the City Council seeing the crowd ordered the National Guard to fire causing carnage and the first detachment between the people and the moderate component of ’ Assembly, shaping differently the French Revolution.

The 20 April France declared war on Austria and all the ’ in the spring the austro-Prussian penetrated France. Louis XVI did not approve appropriate measures, so was seen as the main culprit of the disastrous progress of the war. In summer the people shooting weapons and asked loudly the deposition of the King and the 10 August 1792 a mob attacked the Tuileries Palace sans culotte, forcing the King to take refuge in the ’ Legislative Assembly.

After the fall of Verdun circulated the news of a possible Dutch antirevolutionary plot centered in prisons, Thus arose l ’ idea that before leaving the city were to eliminate the detainees.

Starting from 2 September 1792 There were five days of carnage and the 20 September 1792 l ’ enemy advance was halted at the battle of Valmy, bringing a moral victory for the population. The 21 September 1792 l ’ Legislative Assembly was dissolved and open the convection, where, in the first session we voted unanimously ’ l ’ all abolition of the monarchy and the proclamation of the Republic.

The 20 January 1793 King was sentenced to death by guillotine in front of a large group of citizens.

The French Revolution introduced himself then as a ’ revolutionary events and complete set with l ’ introduction of innovations and political changes, the disappearance of the absolute figure of the King.

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