At the time of the liberation of Italy from Nazi ’ the country was deeply divided. In southern Italy the war had ended in the summer of ’ 1943 While the North was extended through 1945. The North fascism himself, ally of the Nazis, responsible for violence and inhuman situations, beyond any dignity.
L ’-fascism had gotten a majority consensus and in two years of resistance had embarked on the way politics. The political via fu dam to livello di discussioni e di Responsabilità di governo. The anti-fascist parties were then in a ’ only organization called the Committee of national liberation of Upper Italy ’ (Clnai).
The leaders of this group were representatives of the Communist Party, deeply rooted in the working class; (There was also the Christian Democrats, the renamed party of don Luigi Sturzo; the Liberals and the party d ’ Action).
All ’ in the Group were still different viewpoints and General discrepancies. For the Communists and the Socialists resistance was the first phase of a social revolution. This revolution would allow a change of the country towards the model of’ Soviet Union. The Christian Democrats and the Liberals thought instead to a democratic regime (model USA and Great Britain).
In Northern Italy was merely anti-fascist General l ’,Republican and workers. The South had instead traditionalist and monarchical ideas (due to the low politicization).
After a series of political news of southern Italy ’, with the birth of “indifference”(a movement antipartitico wary of resistance), l ’ assertion of the separatist movement and confrontations between landowners,bandits and mafiosi against laborers l ’ Italy found herself with a fragile national unity, clearly threatened by political divisions. In addition to the hatred and grudges that existed between North and South, bequeathed by the dictatorship there was the issue of differing perspectives of political forces.
After the liberation of 1945 the first democratic Government was led by the Piedmontese Ferruccio Parri (exponent of the party d ’ Action and justice and freedom). In December was succeeded by new Government of Christian Democrat Alcide De Gasperi (1881-1954), a former Congressman in Vienna (When Trent was still Austria).
The 2 June 1946, for the first time, all Italians over 18 were invited to vote. The system was based on universal suffrage even feminine with a proportional system to rate a ’ constituent Assembly. The same electoral context 2 June we had to decide, between the Republican and monarchical form. The decision was made according to an institutional referendum.
The North and South of Italy ’ voted so evidently discordant : to the South the Republic received about 35% votes against 65% in favour of monarchy, While in the North the results you overthrew; generally prevailed the Republic with the 54% of votes (about 12 millions for the Republic against the 10 million against) going to be the first Italian Republic.