The history of the civilization of the Nile River begins around 3000 l.., When were unified upper and lower Egypt. For nearly three thousand years, marked over three distinct periods (Ancient, Middle and new Kingdom) l ’ Egypt showed a spectacular civilization.
This civilization was based on a clear social division, at the height of which resided the Pharaoh. A key element in the creation and development, in particular, agriculture was the Nile River.
Through irrigation systems and agricultural production has been possible to make fertile part of territory that became lush.
L ’ Egyptian art was the will and direct expression of Pharaoh ’, the highest political and military authorities, who held absolute power. The main features of this civilization were the pyramids, Solar symbols and immortality.
The pyramids were indeed of the monumental tombs for the Pharaohs died.
Initially they were constructed with steps (made of stones, just then a symbol of immortality of the sovereign perishable) to indicate some sort of scale that went from Earth to heaven.
In 2500 BC appeared the first example of a pyramid with smooth faces, Thanks all ’ use of sloping stone slabs.
The four corners of the pyramid showed the Sun's rays, revered as God by the name of Amon Ra (Hence the ruler descended).
All ’ inside of the pyramids were present, sometimes, smaller pyramids for Queens or the principles, temples and tombs of dignitaries and officials of the Court.
An important monumental complex Egyptian is to Giza, not far from Cairo, l current capital of ’ Egypt ’. The complex was built in the 3rd millennium b.c. to house the tomb of Khufu and Khafre son chased.
The pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the complex built in 2510 a. C. All ’ ’ pyramids plateau entrance we find the Sphinx. The Sphinx was a huge animal with the body of a lion and the human face, patroness of the monumental complex.