Summary of Hume's philosophy


Summary of Hume's philosophy

Riassunto della filosofia di Hume

In this article you will find a summary of Hume's philosophy, explaining his thought, at “A treatise of human nature” and scepticism.
David Hume was born in Edinburgh, in Scotland, the 26 April 1711. His interests were directed to the study of philosophy and literature, in fact, after an attempt to practice law at Bristol moved to France, where he remained for three years (1734-1737).
In this period he composed the “A treatise of human nature“, published between 1739 and the 1740.
The cornerstone of Hume's philosophy is an ambitious project to build a science of human nature on an experimental basis, so a sort of science of man as capital of the Kingdom of knowledge.
The philosophy, or better, the philosophical thought of David Hume a general tendency empiricist and traced with a general skepticism in which cognitive demands of human nature are severely limited.
Let us now, in this summary of Hume's philosophy on his path of knowledge.
In his analysis aimed at probing the extent and strength of the human intellect Hume divides the perceptions of the mind into two separate classes by their degree of force and vivacity with which you strike the consciousness.
The first are the impressions, perceptions that penetrate with greater force in consciousness, While the latter, illanguidite images of these impressions are ideas.
Every idea is derived from a previous perception and the idea can never reach the vivacity of impressions.
We continue now this summary of Hume's philosophy with the concept of binding substance. Hume defines this principle as a gentle strength which operates according to three criteria: similarity, contiguity in time and space and causality. With regard to the similarity We can think of a portrait, that naturally leads our thoughts to its original, for contiguity We can think about the memory of an apartment to a House that leads us to speak of the other apartments in the same House, While for the causality We can say that the idea of a wound makes us think of the pain that comes with it. Hume then distinguishes some propositions concerning relationships between ideas: distinguish propositions concerning relationships between ideas and those matters respecting givens. The first can be discovered through the single operation of thought and have within themselves their validity. The latter are based on experience as the opposite of a fact is always possible. The philosopher in question offers a critical analysis of the polluter pays principle by saying that the relationship between cause and effect cannot be known a priori, but only with the experience. The connection between cause and effect is devoid of any inner necessity: experience tells us that only one of them will occur, but the experience enlightens us only around the facts that we have experienced in the past without hinting at future cases. The link between cause and effect is therefore be subjective and in the long run the repetition leads to the habit.
The causal relationship is not therefore justified a priori (with the reasoning) or a posteriori.



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